[Ca]. Bones and teeth structure.
Muscle contractions. Cofactor for extracellular enzyme and proteins.
[P]. Critical component in every
body cell. Bone and membrane component. Essential energy carrier [ATP].
[Mg]. Involved in more than 300
metabolic reactions [enzymatic regulation of lipid , carbohydrate and protein
metabolism]. Important in cardiovascular function.
[Fe]. It is the key element in all
living organisms. Regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Critical in
oxygen transport in the blood.
[Na]. Electrolyte balance.
[K]. Electrolyte balance.
[Cl]. Electrolyte balance.
[Zn]. Involved in catalytic,
structural and regulatory functions. Stabilizes membranes, hormones and nucleic
[Cu]. Cofactor in multiple enzymes.
Connective tissue formation. Blood clothing. Energy conversion. Pigmentation of
hair, skin and eyes.
[I]. Essential in thyroid’s
hormone function. Critical in the brain development in fetus and infants.
[ Se]. Present in Selenoproteins.
Protects against oxidative injuries.
[Cr]. Regulates the function of
insulin. Affects lipid metabolism.
Retinol [A]. Required
for healthy eye function. Necessary for fetal development. Strengthens the
Thiamin [B1]. Necessary
in nerve transmission. Its deficiency affects the cardiovascular, muscular,
nervous and gastrointestinal systems.
Riboflavin [B2]. As a coenzyme it participates in the
redox reactions in the production of energy via the respiratory pathway.
Niacin [B3]. Function
as nucleotide precursors which are key components in redox reactions.
Pyridoxine [B6]. It
has numerous complex functions: Sugar and fat metabolism, synthesis of
neurotransmitters, hormone regulator, etc.
Cobalamin [B12]. Functions
as a coenzyme. Its deficiency causes anemia and neuropathy.
Pteroylglutamic acid [Folic Acid].
Required for DNA synthesis. Involved in protein and fat synthesis. Its
deficiency causes neural damage.
Ascorbic Acid [C].
It functions as a protective antioxidant, necessary for the synthesis of
connective tissue, important in neurotransmitter synthesis, involved in the
regulation of iron metabolism, etc. There are indications that it strengthens
the immune system, lower the risk of cancer and heart diseases.
Tocopherol [E]. Functions
as an anti-oxidant and prevents damage to membranes. protects PUFA.